English| Español| Français| Deutsch| Italiano| Português

Nobel Prize Nominee (Literature)
Allama Mashriqi

Founder of the Khaksar Tehrik
One of the Founding Fathers of Pakistan

August 25, 1888 - August 27, 1963

Punjab University: Master of Arts (M.A.) in Mathematics; Degrees from Christ's College, Cambridge University, England (1907-1912): Bachelor of Arts (B.A.), Bachelor of Science (Bsc.), Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.), Bachelor of Oriental Languages (B.O.L.). Four Triposes with distinction in five years (at Cambridge University from 1907-1912) in Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Mechanical Sciences, and Oriental languages. Titles awarded at Cambridge University: Wrangler, Foundation Scholar, and Bachelor Scholar; Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (F.R.S.A) (1923), Fellow Geographical Society (F.G.S) (Paris, France), Fellow of Society of Arts (F.S.A) (Paris, France). Member of the Board at Dehli University, President Mathematical Society, Authored Tazkirah and many other books, Member International Congress of Orientalists, President All World's Faiths Conference (1937), A delegate to Palestine World Conference, Gold medalist World Society of Islam, Head of the delegation for the Motamar-I-Khilafat Conference at Cairo, Member of Indian Education Service ( I.E.S), Under Secretary of Education of undivided India, Founder of the Khaksar Tehrik.

Book on Mashriqi and Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan

Introduction to Mashriqi  | Mashriqi's Father  | Mashriqi's Family  | His Lifestyle  | Mashriqi's Educational Achievements  | Educational Acclaim: 1907 and 1911-1912  | Mashriqi Declines Knighthood and Ambassadorship  | Mashriqi Appointed Under Secretary  | Contact With World Leaders  | Meetings with Founder and Presidents of Pakistan  | List of Books  | His Monumental Book, Tazkirah  | Book on Al-Mashriqi  | Book Dedicated to Mashriqi  | Photos of Him  | Prominent Personalities With Mashriqi  | Mourning His Death  | Headlines About Mashriqi's Death  | Tributes to Mashriqi on his Death  | Bhutto's Tribute  | Mr. Yousaf's Memory of Allama's Funeral  | Khaksar Tehrik  | Pakistan Resolution and the Khaksars  | Public Speeches  | His Followers  | Devotion to the Cause  | His Prediction about the Separation of Pakistan  | Chronology of Allama Mashriqi and the Khaksar Tehrik  | Research on Mashriqi  | Allama Mashriqi Guided the Nation  | Mashriqi's Legacy Lives On  | Khaksar Tehrik's Support of Earthquake Victims  | Contact

His Son-in-Law, Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan
His Grandson, Nasim Yousaf


Citation Information

Warning to Anti-Mashriqi Writers and Speakers


A Brief Introduction:

Allama Mashriqi (Inayatullah Khan) was born on August 25, 1888 and died in Lahore, Pakistan on August 27, 1963. He was born into a very well respected and financially strong family. His ancestors held prominent positions during the Mughal Empire. He was a genius and broke records at Punjab University in Pakistan and Cambridge University in England. In 1930, Mashriqi laid the foundation for the Khaksar Tehrik. The Tehrik spread throughout India in a very short span of time. His followers and supporters came from all walks of life and numbered in the millions. Mashriqi played a vital role in Indian politics and directed the nation towards freedom. Mashriqi was a simple, straightforward person. He devoted his life to serving the people, particularly the downtrodden. He denounced and demolished the wall between the privileged and the unprivileged. He made himself a part of the people and made every man accessible to him without any reservation. Mashriqi was pure and noble and disliked personal glorification. Though highly educated and politically strong, Mashriqi had no hunger for power and served the nation with no personal gains in mind. He abandoned the life of luxury because he considered it unethical and illogical to pursue a life of luxury when his own people were living in poverty. Pakistan has yet to see a man like Mashriqi, who sacrificed everything for the nation. It was because of this devotion that he earned the respect of millions.

Mashriqi's Father:

Mashriqi's father, Khan Ata Mohammad Khan, was also an author and had written books in prose as well as poetry and published a weekly magazine by the name of Vakil. He was a man of means, and helped Mashriqi to acquire the best possible education. He had a very close relationship with Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (Founder of Aligarh University and a very well respected person in the Muslim community of Indo-Pakistan) and both were extremely concerned about the future of the Muslims. Allama Mashriqi met Sir Syed when he was very young. Allama's father was also well connected with other Muslim leaders such as Nawab of Loharu, Maulana Shibli Nomani, Abu Kalam Azad, Abdullah al Amadi, Syed Jamal ud Din Afgani and other prominent personalities of that time. Abu Kalam Azad also worked for Allama’s father’s biweekly newspaper. Click here for more information on Vakil.

Educational Achievements of Allama Mashriqi:

Allama Mashriqi was educated at the Punjab University at Lahore, Pakistan and later went on to Cambridge University in England. His academic achievements at home and at Cambridge established new records and surprised everybody in Britain and India alike. He had earned degrees in many subjects including Mathematics, Natural and Mechanical Sciences, Oriental Languages, etc. He held degrees such as Fellow Geographical Society- F.G.S. (Paris), Fellow Society of Arts- F.S.A. (Paris), and Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts- F.R.S.A. He earned many of his degrees in less time than was required and yet he still broke all previous records. He was a renowned Mathematician. He was also President of the Mathematical Society, Member of the Delhi University Board, and was awarded the Gold Medal by the World Society of Islam.

Allama went above and beyond the expectations of his examiners. For example, if there were ten questions and the students were supposed to complete nine out of ten, he would perform all ten and give the examiners the choice of which ones to check.

He is believed to be the first man from anywhere in the world to have honors in four different Triposes and to have completed them in a short period of time with distinction. The British newspapers could not ignore his achievements and paid high tributes to him in their newspapers. He was given many titles because of his various academic achievements such as "Foundation Scholar" and "Wrangler". Many newspapers, including The Times London, The Daily Mirror, The Daily Telegraph, and Cambridge Daily, commended his superb performance.

Click below to see the educational acclaim Mashriqi received from various newspapers:
Educational Acclaim: 1907 and 1911-1912

Refusal of Premiership, Ambassadorship, Knighthood, Federal Ministry:

After completing his education in England, he traveled around in Europe and then returned to India. While he was in England, he was contacted by the Maharaja of Alver for a State Premiership. He was not interested in this position or meeting the Maharaja and he declined the offer.

In order to oblige Allama, he was offered Ambassadorship and Knighthood in 1920 and 1921 respectively by the British.

After the creation of Pakistan, he was also offered Federal Ministries in the Government of Pakistan many times by different Heads of State. Allama declined all these offers because he did not agree with the government's policies and he felt that the policies would not help the people of Indo-Pakistan and Kashmir. He did not acquire political position for fame or to meet personal ends. He came from a strong family and was above these things.

Appointed Under Secretary of Education:

Mashriqi was appointed the Under Secretary of Education for India in 1917 by the British Government. He was the first Muslim to hold such a high position. He resigned from the post and founded the Khaksar Tehrik.

Contact With World Leaders:

Allama met and/or exchanged correspondence with different world leaders on the issue of Muslims in India. Allama exchanged views on the issue of Muslims with different Kings and other prominent leaders of Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Tunis, Egypt, Iraq, and Turkey.

He was also in constant contact with Muslim leaders in India such as Nawab Bahadur Yar Jang, Maulana Abu Kalam Azad, Sir Zia ud Din (Khaksar), Sir Zafar Ullah, Sir Suleman and other important distinguished personalities of the time.

Allama was in contact with Non-Muslim leaders as well. He wrote letters to Mahatma Gandhi in order to bring re-conciliation between him and Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah over political issues. Other leaders he was in contact with included Jawaharlal Nehru (later became the Premier of India) and Rajagopalchariar (Premier of Madras).

Mashriqi visited many countries in connection with Muslim affairs and was invited to Saudi Arabia by the King as a State Guest. He led a delegation at Motmar-i-Khilafat in Cairo, Egypt. This was where he delivered his historic speech, "Khitab-i-Misr." Allama also attended the Palestine World Conference and was the President of the World Faiths Conference (1937). In short, he was working continuously for the freedom of the Muslims of India and for the welfare and future of Muslims around the world.

Meetings with the Founder of Pakistan and Presidents:

Allama was constantly working for the welfare of Muslims before and after the creation of Pakistan. He met and exchanged correspondence with Quaid-i-Azam on the issue of Muslims of the Sub-Continent. Allama also met and/or was in contact with domestic leaders of Pakistan such as Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan, Prime Minister Khawaja Nazimuddin, Governer General Ghulam Mohammad, President Sikandar Mirza and President Ayub Khan at different times in order to discuss the future of Muslims in Pakistan and Kashmir.

Mashriqi was extremely dedicated to the cause of Kashmir and continued his efforts even after Pakistan was created. He wanted to see Kashmir liberated during his lifetime. Until the last days of his life, Allama stayed in contact with President Ayub Khan and offered him any services from the Khaksar Tehrik which could help solve the issue of Kashmir.

Public Speeches:

Allama was an excellent orator. He delivered many public speeches in different cities where large numbers of his followers would come to listen to him.

Allama Delivering Speeches

His Followers:

Allama had millions of followers. His followers and supporters came from every walk of life, rich and poor, from the general public, to Nawabs, Sirs (title given by the British Government) and Government Officials including Federal Ministers, and Army Generals. He was respected by everyone, even politicians and Heads of State, despite their differences on political issues.

All the Khaksars in his party were volunteers who were devoted to his movement's cause. They joined the movement with no personal interests or motives. The Khaksars were extremely dedicated people. If Allama asked the Khaksars to move from one place to another for public service or called them for a convention/meeting, they all followed his orders blindly and willingly at any time, day or night. They knew that Allama was an extremely honest, selfless, and devoted person and that whatever he did was for the welfare of the Muslims of Indo-Pak. Allama inspired and motivated his followers by making personal sacrifices which people could see in his daily life. Because of the examples set by Allama, the Khaksars devoted their time, energy, and finances for the cause of the Muslims.

Everyone in the Khaksar Tehrik, including Allama Mashriqi, was treated equally. They all wore the same simple khaki dress. If Allama made a mistake, he was punished in the same manner that any other Khaksar would have been punished. Allama made no distinction between him and his fellow Khaksars and treated everyone with full respect.

Nawab Bahadur Yar Jung, Mir Ali Ahmeb Talpur, and Other Prominent Followers

Other Followers

Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto (Late Prime Minister Of Pakistan) and S.M. Zafar's (Ex-Federal Law Minister of Pakistan) Recognition of Mashriqi:

Mr Nasim Yousaf, grandson of Allama Mashriqi, said that late Prime Minister Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto appreciated and recognized the services rendered by Allama for the creation of Pakistan and for the Muslim cause. Bhutto said, "He was a great leader and his services for the creation of Pakistan were unparalleled." Bhutto expressed these views during a meeting at the Prime Minister House in Rawalpindi, Pakistan with Mashriqi's daughter, Mrs Masuda Yousaf and grandson, Mr.Nasim Yousaf. Bhutto also invited one of Allama’s sons, Inam Ullah Khan Akram, to join hands with his Peoples’ Party and also offered ro him the Peoples' Party’s ticket to contest the general election for National Assembly of Pakistan.

Mr. Yousaf also remembers his childhood when S.M. Zafar (Ex-Federal Law Minister of Pakistan) wrote on Mr. Yousaf’s autograph book, “Follow in the footsteps of your grandfather, whose sacrifices cannot be forgotten."

Allama's Lifestyle:

Allama came from a wealthy family of Indo-Pak and studied at Cambridge University. In his early years, he dressed in English attire. He maintained luxury cars and had servants to perform household chores and serve the food. However, he soon realized that his whole lifestyle was superficial and he abandoned it in order to lead a simpler life working for the welfare of Muslims. He started wearing plain khaki clothes made out of inexpensive cloth. He sat, walked, and talked with anyone who came to see him. It made no difference to him whether he was meeting the Head of the State or a man from the street. He led a very humble life and arrogance was not part of his personality, despite his background.

According to Mashriqi, a leader must not live in luxury while his nation lives in poverty.

Devotion to the Muslim Cause:

Mashriqi devoted his life to the Muslim causes of rebuilding the nation and obtaining independence.

He always put the Muslim cause before his own self and his family. One of Mashriqi's own sons, Ehsanullah Khan Aslam, was injured when hit by a police tear gas grenade during a raid on the Khaksar headquarters in Lahore on March 20, 1940. As a result of his injury, Mashriqi's son died on May 31, 1940.

Throughout his life, Mashriqi was not only concerned about the future of the Muslims in India, Pakistan, and Kashmir, but also Muslims in other parts of the world.

Prediction about the separation of Pakistan:

Based on his observations of the circumstances in Pakistan, Mashriqi issued a warning to the nation during his address in 1956 at Minto Park, Lahore. He stated that if the conditions in East Pakistan were not improved, then East Pakistan would declare its independence. His warning became a reality in 1971 when East Pakistan declared independence and formed Bangladesh. Below is the warning issued by Mashriqi in 1956:

"Ye Muslims! Today from this platform I sound you a warning. Listen carefully and ponder. Sometime in the future, probably in 1970, you will be confronted with a perilous situation. In 1970 - I see it clearly - the nation will be stormed from all sides. The internal situation would have deteriorated gravely. A panic of widespread bloodshed will sweep the nation. The frenzy of racial and provincial prejudices will grip the whole country. Zindabad and murdabad will defean your ears. Plans will be initiated to dismember the country. Take it from me that in 1970, Pakistan will be plagued with a grave threat to its sovereignty. You might actually lose it if the reigns of the country were not in the hands of courageous and unrelenting leadership.

India will, in that grave situation, try to take advantage of your internal turmoil and devour you. Or, the governance of the country will fall in the hands of spineless self-seekers or self-centred opportunists who might on their own accord push you into the Indian lap. I warn you about 1970. I warn you to prepare from now to face the situation which will emerge in that year. In 1947, you had a refuge to protect yourself but in the coming days of 1970 - I can clearly visualise – you will have river Attock on one side and the Chinese border on the other, and you will have no place to go…"

Source: Al-Mashriqi: The Disowned Genius (page 256-257) by Syed Shabbir Hussain, Published by Jang Publishers, Lahore, Pakistan. First Edition April, 1991.

Tazkirah and Other Books by Allama Mashriqi:

Allama wrote many books, the most famous of which was Tazkirah, a commentary on the Holy Quran and the Laws of Nature. Tazkirah was also formally nominated for consideration for the Nobel Prize (Literature). The committee did not consider the nomination because Allama refused to translate the book from Arabic into English. Other books he wrote include Isharat, Qaul-i-Faisal, Hedithul Quran, Farogh-i-Islam, Takmilah. Some of his books remained incomplete at the time of his death.

Books by and on Allama Mashriqi and the Khaksar Tehrik are available in research libraries in the USA, including the Library of Congress. His books are also available in Pakistan. Many of his books are published by Al-Tazkira publications in Pakistan.

This page contains a list of some books about Allama Mashriqi and the Khaksar Tehrik. It also has a list of some libraries where books on him and his political party can be found.

Book on Al-Mashriqi:

Syed Shabbir Hussain wrote a book entitled Al-Mashriqi which was published by Jang, the well-known publisher of Jang Newspapers in Pakistan.

In the book, Mr. Husain writes, “At this moment I cannot help remembering two military leaders, Pakistan’s late president Zia-ul-Haq, who, when informed at a small gathering at his place over five years ago that I was attempting a book on Mashriqi, looked at me pensively and said, ‘You must write a book on him, yes, you must write.’ The other soldier is late Lt. General. A.I. Akram, himself a great author and analyst, who a few months before his death asked me at a diplomatic reception, ‘What book is in hand these days’, and when I mentioned Mashriqi, he offered a word of encouragement. ‘He deserves a book. You must write one on him,’ he said.”

Research Studies on Allama Mashriqi or The Khaksar Tehrik:

Mr. Nasim Yousaf has been conducting extensive research on Allama Mashriqi for many years and as a result, he has published a book entitled Allama Mashriqi & Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan: Two Legends of Pakistan. His research is ongoing and he devotes a considerable amount of time toward the cause, hoping to continue providing the nation with valuable publications in the future.

History lovers, researchers, biographers, historians, professors, students, etc. can find information on Allama Mashriqi and the Khaksar Tehrik from various newspapers, weeklies, bi-weeklies and other publications. Listed below are some Urdu and English language newspapers that can be used for conducting research (note: many of these newspapers are available on microfilm at research universities and public libraries):

Al-Islah (Lahore), Radiance (Lucknow), The Dawn, (Karachi & Delhi), The Pakistan Times (Lahore & Rawalpindi) Nawa-i-Waqat (Lahore), Jang (Karachi & Rawalpindi) , Tameer (Rawalpindi) , Kohistan (Rawalpindi) , Mashriq (Lahore) , The Tribune (Lahore, pre-partition), The Civil & Military Gazette (Lahore) , The Statesman (Calcutta) , The Bombay Chronicle (Bombay), The Hindustan Times (Delhi, pre-partition), Anjam (Karachi), Chattan (Lahore), The Eastern Times (Lahore), Imroze (Lahore), Humdam (Lucknow), Inqalab (Lahore), Iqbal (Rawalpindi), The Khyber Mail (Peshawar), Musawat (Lahore), The Hindu (Madras), Pakistan Today (Dacca), Tej (Delhi), Zamindar (Lahore), Ehsan (Lahore), The Eastern Examiner (Chittagong), Morning News (Karachi and Dacca), Vakeel (Amritsar).

On September 13, 2004, Mr. Yousaf traveled to London to continue his research on Mashriqi and the Khaksar Tehrik.

The British Government's correspondence regarding the Khaksar Tehrik (particularly during the 1940s) is quite important. When conducting research on this topic, consider the following:

Below are some resources for conducting research:

Theses on the Khaksar Tehrik:

1) Unpublished Doctoral Thesis by Muhammad Khursheed (1992)
Subject: The Role of the Unionist Party in the Punjab Politics 1923-36
Place: Islamia University, Bahawalpur

2) M.A. Thesis by Abdullah Kaleem (1970)
Subject: Khaksar Tehreek
Place: Punjab University, Lahore

3) M.A. Thesis by Abussalam (1972)
Subject: Khaksar Tehreek
Place: Punjab University, Lahore

4) M.A thesis by Muhammad Iqbal (1978)
Subject: Allama Inyatullah Khan Mashriqi ka Nazariya-i-Mazhab
Place: Punjab University, Lahore

Mourning his death:

With Allama Mashriqi’s death, one chapter of the history of Indo-Pakistan was closed.

Allama Mashriqi died in August of 1963. Upon his death, major newspapers and publications put headlines commending his dedication to the Muslim cause and to the poor people of Pakistan. They commented on what a great loss it was for the entire nation.

The news of Allama’s death spread like wildfire and was broadcast by Radio Pakistan, BBC, All India Radio, and other Radio Stations around the globe. His funeral procession was one of the largest ever seen in the history of Pakistan. Traffic was jammed and roads were packed with people who were crying and mourning his death. Condolence messages were sent by domestic and international leaders upon his death.

Mr. Nasim Yousaf 's Memory of Allama's Funeral :

Mr. Yousaf, grandson of Allama, who was a child at the time of Mashriqi’s death, remembers the day Allama died and he narrates the following:

"The nation seemed to be in a state of shock. The gloom and tragedy persisted in the air. People were pouring into the city of Lahore from all over the country in order to join his funeral from the hospital to the place where he was to be laid to rest forever. There were people as far as the eye could see; On the sidewalks, on the roofs of buildings and houses, on balconies, trees, poles and anywhere they could find a place to stand. They were all hoping to get a last glimpse of the unforgettable leader. People were sobbing and showering him with flowers and petals, in an effort to bid farewell to the departing leader. There were so many flowers being thrown, that the streets were covered with petals and Allama’s face could hardly be seen under them. Large numbers of policemen were made available to control the mourners. The streets of Lahore were packed with people and traffic had to be diverted. Domestic and international phone calls from people from all walks of life were constantly coming to Allama's residence. Thousands of messages of condolences were received from within Pakistan as well as from all over the world. I was kissed and hugged by the mourners and the Khaksars out of love for Mashriqi. At the burial, all the Khaksars were clad in Khaki attire and a gun salute was given. The solemn scene at the time of the burial reached its peak when all the men, women, and children began to cry and sob as Mashriqi was being laid into his grave."

May God rest his soul in peace.

Headlines about Allama Mashriqi's Death in Major Newspapers:

Jang (Published in Karachi, Pakistan)
August 29 1963


Dawn (Published in Karachi, Pakistan)
August 28 1963


Pakistan Times (Published in Lahore, Pakistan)
August 28 1963

Imroze (Published in Lahore, Pakistan)
August 30 1963

Researchers may also consult the following newspapers for news about Allama Mashriqi's condition and death:

From August 8, 1963 to September 8, 1963:

  1. The Pakistan Times (Published in English in Rawalpindi, Pakistan)
  2. Nawai Waqat (Published in Urdu in Lahore, Pakistan)
  3. Mashriq (Published in Urdu in Lahore, Pakistan)
  4. Kohistan (Published in Urdu in Rawalpindi, Pakistan)
  5. Tameer (Published in Urdu in Lahore, Pakistan)
  6. Jang (Published in Urdu in Rawalpindi, Pakistan)
  7. Times of India (Published in English in India)
  8. The Hindustan Times (Published in English in India)
News About Allama Mashriqi's Condition

More News About Allama Mashriqi's Death

Allama Mashriqi's Burial

President and Governer of Pakistan Pay Their Respects to Allama Mashriqi

Tributes by Leaders and Others

Editorials and Articles on Allama Mashriqi

Tribute by ARY One World (TV Station)

Article in Nawaiwaqt on August 30, 2009

A special note from Mr. Nasim Yousaf in Memory of Allama's sisters:

Mr Yousaf praised Zainab and Ayesha, the sisters of Allama Mashriqi, who raised and educated many Pakistani children. They even sent some children abroad for higher studies.

Request for his photos:

If anyone has a photo(s) or material of Allama Mashriqi or of the Khaksars' activites and would like to include it on this web site, you are welcome to do so with no charge or obligation on either part. Contact information:

For any questions regarding this web site, please email the web manager at the following address:

Link to Allama Mashriqi's Son in Law, Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan:
Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan was the founder of the Orangi Pilot Project in Pakistan. He was a scholar and was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by Michigan State University. Dr. Khan was a recipient of the Hilal-e-Pakistan, Sitra-i-Pakistan, and the Magsaysay Award (The highest civil award from the Government of Pakistan and Philippines). He graduated from Cambridge University in England and joined the prestigious Indian Civil Service (I.C.S.). He was a Social Scientist and millions benefited from his Orangi Pilot Project (OPP) and the Comilla Rural Academy.

Link to Allama Mashriqi's Grandson, Mr. Nasim Yousaf:
An Entrepreneur and Member of the Board of Directors which founded Pakistan Commercial Exporters of Towels Association. He was also Ex-Vice Chairman(N.Z.) of the PCETA.

Symbol of the Khaksar Tehrik
Link to the Khaksar Tehrik

Links to Pakistani Websites

Link to History Webring


© 1999-2009 Mr. Nasim Yousaf. All rights reserved.

Citation Information: The material on this web site has been extracted from Mr. Nasim Yousaf's collections as well as his works. If information from this web site is extracted or reproduced, please note that Mr. Nasim Yousaf is to be credited as the source of the information along with the web site address http://www.allama-mashriqi.8m.com
Thank You.

eXTReMe Tracker