Chronology of the Khaksar Tehrik and its Leader, Allama Mashriqi

1888-1940  | 1940-1947

1940 January 04 Mashriqi writes a letter to Sir Shah Suleiman.

1940 February 20 The Punjab government orders the confiscation of Aksariat Ya Khoon, a pamphlet of the Khaksar movement.

1940 February 27 Mashriqi arrives in Dehli from Lahore to discuss with the Viceroy of India the ban on Khaksar activities.

1940 February 27 Mashriqi meets Quaid-e-Azam, Sir Suleman, Dr. Sir Zia ud Din, and Sir Zafarullah Khan in Dehli to discuss the Punjab government’s ban on Khaksar activities.

1940 March 19 Many Khaksars are brutally killed at Lahore by indiscriminate police fire. This opens a new chapter in the history of the Pakistan movement.

1940 March 19 The government declares the Khaksar Terik to be illegal. Due to this Khaksar problem, a curfew is imposed.

1940 March 20 Mashriqi is arrested in Dehli.

1940 March 20 Star of India publishes Mr. Jinnah's statement about the Khaksars:

"I am deeply grieved to hear the tragic account of the incident in Lahore last evening regarding the clash between the Police and the Khaksars resulting in terrible loss of life and injury on both the sides. I hope the Khaksars will carry out the instructions issued by their leader, Mr. Inayatullah Mashriqi, published in the newspapers of this morning. As one who has always been so kindly treated by the Khaksars, I appeal to them most earnestly to keep peace and not precipitate matters by defying law and order. It is difficult to say anything till I am in possession of full facts of the situation."

1940 March 20 The Tribune, Lahore publishes headline of the Khaksars’ clash with police.

1940 March 21 The Tribune, Lahore publishes headline of Mashriqi’s arrest.

1940 March 21 Quaid-e-Azam visits the Khaksars in the hospital in Lahore.

1940 March 21 Quaid-e-Azam makes a speech condemning the killing of the Khaksars.

1940 March 22 The Civil & Military Gazette publishes Quaid-e-Azam's statement about the killing of Khaksars on March 19, 1940 in Lahore.

1940 March 22 Mr. K.L. Gauba presents the adjournment motion related to the recent firing in Lahore to the Punjab Legislative Assembly.

1940 March 23 The Pakistan Resolution is passed. Included in this resolution is the following, which was presented by Quaid-e-Azam:

"This Session of the All India Muslim League places on record its deep sense of sorrow at the unfortunate and tragic occurrence on the 19th of March, 1940, owing to a clash between the Khaksars and the police, resulting in the loss of a large number of lives and injuries to many more, and sincerely sympathizes with those who suffered and with their families and dependents.

This Session calls upon the Government forthwith to appoint an independent and impartial committee of inquiry, the personnel of which would command the perfect confidence of the people, with instructions to them to make full and complete investigation and inquiry in the whole affair, and make their report as soon as possible.

This Session authorizes the Working Committee to take such actions in the matter as they may consider proper immediately after publication of the report of the Committee.

This Session urges upon the various Governments that the order declaring the Khaksar Organization unlawful should be removed as soon as possible."

1940 April 14, Mahatma Gandhi’s article on the Khaksar Movement is published in The Tribune, Lahore.

1940 May 23 Maulana Zafar Ali Khan (M.L.A. Central) sends a telegram to the government of Punjab to remove the ban on the Khaksar Tehrik and release Mashriqi. The news is published in The Tribune, Lahore on May 25, 1940.

1940 May 31 There is a Hartal (strike) by the Muslims in Lahore in respect for the deceased Khaksars. The news appears in The Tribune, Lahore on June 1, 1940.

1940 June 12 News appears in The Hindustan Times about the arrest of hundreds of Khaksars.

1940 June 16 News appears in The Hindustan Times about the arrests of Khaksars.

1940 June 16 News appears in The Hindustan Times about the death of a Khaksar who had been injured from the firing.

1940 June 28 Mr Jinnah issues a press statement from Simla regarding the Khaksar issue.

1940 July 05 News appears in The Hindustan Times about a Khaksar who died of injuries.

1940 July 05 News appears in The Hindustan Times about the arrest of Khaksars.

1940 July 06 News appears in The Hindustan Times about the trials and sentencing of Khaksars.

1940 July 09 News appears in The Hindustan Times about the arrest of three Khaksars.

1940 July 10 News appears in The Hindustan Times about Khaksars sentenced by the court at Multan.

1940 July 16 News appears in The Hindustan Times about the Khaksars on trial in Multan.

1940 September 01 News appears in The Hindustan Times about the conviction of male and female Khaksars.

1940 September 05 News appears in The Hindustan Times about Allama Mashriqi’s offer of 250,000 Khaksars to the Viceroy for the defense of India against foreign aggression.

1940 September 07 The Star of India publishes Jinnah’s statement, hoping "that the Punjab government will now deal with the Khaksars in a generous and friendly manner particularly with regard to the cases of those who have suffered and who are now undergoing sentences of imprisonment."

1941 February 26 A Khaksar camp was organized at Lyallpur.

1941 March 10 Mashriqi writes a letter from jail to Professor Dr. Rafiq Ahmed Khan of Aligarh Muslim University informing him, "My last days are nearing. It will be alright if I receive a reply and I am released. Otherwise I am going to die… ..I am not going to change my decision nor do I repent for it. I am happy because I am going to lay down my life for the sake of Government." At the conclusion of his letter, he states, "Again gird up your loins. Do not let my face be blackened. Save the honour of Islam…"

1941 May 02 Mashriqi Day is observed in the entire India to seek his release from the jail.

1941 May 02 Sir Zia ud Din Ahmed writes to Additional Secretary Tottenham to release Mashriqi.

1941 June 21 Quaid-e-Azam writes a letter to Zauqi stating that "the Khaksars should work as members of the Muslim League under one flag and one platform."

1941 October 16 Mashriqi begins fasting to obtain the Khaksars release. He fasted for 80 days.

1942 January 19 Mashriqi is released from Vallore jail after being detained for 22 months without trial. However, his movements are still restricted in Madras. The restrictions are finally removed on December 28, 1942.

1942 February 22 Jinnah presides over an All India Muslim League meeting and the following resolution is passed:

"This Council of the All India Muslim League while appreciating the action of government of India in releasing Allama Inayatullah Mashriqui, resents the ban placed upon his moving outside Madras and urges upon the government for its immediate removal."

1942 March 29 Dawn publishes Mashriqi’s telegram (while at the Madras Presidency) to Sir Stafford Cripps (leader of the Cripps Mission). In the telegram, Mashriqi demands that the removal of the ban on the Khaksar Tehrik, the release of the Khaksars in prison, and the complete independence of India.

Some of the points Mashriqi raises in his telegram:

  1. 2000 Khaksars were arrested
  2. Thirteen-year old son was murdered
  3. Sixteen-year old son was arrested and put in jail
  4. Hundreds of thousands of personal property and cash was confiscated
  5. Family was deprived of many personal belongings
  6. Family was made to starve
  7. Forced to pay Rs. 1000 as jail expense
  8. Threatened to be lashed
  9. Kicked by the suprintendent of the jail
  10. Locked and tortured
  11. Kept in solitary confinement
  12. Family was not allowed to visit
  13. Kept in jail for 22 months without trial
  14. Had to fast for 80 days
  15. Pension was stopped
  16. Still has to remain in Madras till a settlement

1942 March 25 Mashriqi writes to Jinnah that he has demanded complete independence of India from Sir Stafford Cripps. In his letter, he suggests that Jinnah demand the same. Mashriqi sent similar letters to Abul Kalam Azad (President of the Congress) and the Hindu Mahasabha.

1942 April 03-06 Jinnah presides over the 29th annual session of the Muslim League and passes the following resolution:

"This session of the All India Muslim League urges upon the government of India to remove all restrictions imposed upon Allama Mashriqui and also lift the ban on the Khaksar movement and release unconditionally all the Khaksar prisoners."

1942 April 03 Mashriqi sends telegrams informing Abul Kalam Azad, Jinnah, Gandhi, Dr. V.D. Svaskar, and Nehru about the Khaksar Tehrik's decision of rejecting the Cripps Mission. On April 10, 1942 the Muslim League and Congress also reject the Cripps Mission's proposals.

1942 April 11 Mashriqi sends telegrams congratulating the three Presidents and Jawaharlal Nehru for rejecting the Cripps Proposals.

1942 April 21 Former Prime Minister of Madras, C. Raj Gopalachari, writes to Allama Mashriqi.

1942 April 28 Mashriqi sends a telegram to Abul Kalam Azad.

1942 April 28 Mashriqi sends a telegram to Quaid-e-Azam

1942 May 05 Mashriqi sends another telegram to Mr. Jinnah.

1942 May 11 Mr.Jinnah replies to Mashriqi's telegram of May 05, 1942

1942 May 11 Mr.Jinnah releases Jinnah-Mashriqi correspondence to the press.

1942 May 12 Mashriqi replies to Quaid-e-Azam's telegram, informing him of the full support of the Khaksar Tehrik to the Muslim League for India’s complete Independence.

1942 May 12 Mashriqi sends telegram to Abul Kalam Azad.

1942 May 13 Abul Kalam Azad sends a reply to Mashriqi’s telegram of May 12, 1942.

1942 May 14 Abul Kalam Azad sends a telegram to Mashriqi.

1942 May 15 Sir Richard Tottenham writes a letter to Mashriqi which is received on May 19, 1942.

1942 May 16 Mashriqi sends a telegram offering full support to Mr. Jinnah for complete independence.

1942 May 16 Mashriqi sends a telegram to Quaid-e-Azam asking him to meet Abul Kalam Azad and Nehru at Madras.

1942 May 16 Mashriqi sends telegram to Abul Kalam Azad asking him to fix a meeting with Quaid-e-Azam.

1942 May 18 Mashriqi receives a letter from Dr. Sir Zia ud Din.

1942 May 27 Mashriqi sends a telegram to Jinnah , Abul Kalam Azad, Gandhi, and Nehru.

1942 June 12, 1942 Mr. Jinnah sends a message to Mashriqi through Dr. Haji Aslam Chistie, a Khaksar who met Mr. Jinnah in Bombay.

1942 June 12 Abul Kalam Azad writes to Mashriqi.

1942 June 12 Jawaharlal Nehru writes to Mashriqi.

1942 June 18 Mashriqi writes to Nehru.

1942 June 19 Mashriqi sends a telegram to Mr. Jinnah

1942 June 23 Jawaharlal Nehru writes to Mashriqi.

1942 June 18, Mashriqi sends telegrams to the Muslim League and Congress leaders.

1942 June 25 Mashriqi sends telegrams to Mr. Jinnah

1942 July 06 Mashriqi sends a telegram to Nehru

1942 July 08 Nehru replies to Mashriqi's telegram of July 06, 1942.

1942 July 11 Mashriqi writes to C. Raj Gopalachari, Ex-Premier of Madras

1942 July 14 C. Raj Gopalachari replies to Mashriqi's letter.

1942 July 28 Mashriqi sends telegrams to various top leaders of the Muslim League and Congress. In his telegram he says, "Quit India Movement" is premature.

1942 September 22-23 Resolution regarding the Khaksars is discussed in the Central Legislative Assembly.

1942 December 28, restrictions on Allama Mashriqi and the ban on the Khaksar Tehrik are released.

1942 December 31 Mashriqi’s statement condoling Sir Sikandar Hayat’s death is published in The Tribune, Lahore.

1943 January 02 Mashriqi arrives in Lahore and is accorded an enthusiastic reception. He addresses the public and thanks God for the opportunity of addressing the public after about three years. According to The Tribune Lahore on January 04, 1943, "Concluding the Allama said that there was nothing secret about the Khaksar movement, which within a period of 12 years had spread throughout India."

1943 January 08 Special prayers of thanks to God are held as a result of Mashriqi's release on December 28, 1942.

1943 March 19 Khaksar Day is observed all over India in memory of the Khaksar martyrs of March 19, 1940.

1943 June 05 Mashriqi sends a telgram to Quaid-e-Azam asking him to meet Gandhi to settle the issue of freedom.

1943 July 26 Rafiq Sabir Mazangvi injures Quaid-e-Azam. He is alleged to be a Khaksar.

The following did not occur on July 26, 1943, but it supports the fact that Rafiq Sabir Mazangvi was not a Khaksar:

The Judge of the Bombay High Court did not accept the evidence that was presented to try to prove Rafiq Sabir Mazangvi to be a Khaksar. Akbar A. Peerbhoy (Quaid-e-Azam’s nephew) wrote the judge’s decision in his book, Jinnah Faces An Assasin.* The book has no mention of Rafiq Sabir Mazangvi being a Khaksar. Furthermore, many newspapers such as The Hidustan Times (November 05, 1943), The Bombay Chronicle (November 05, 1943), and The Tribune, Lahore (November 05, 1943) also did not mention Rafiq Sabir Mazangvi as being a Khaksar in their reports about the High Court’s decision.

* Jinnah Faces An Assasin was first published in Bombay in 1943. It was later published in Karachi, Pakistan by East and West Publishing Company.

Below are more quotes that support the point mentioned above:

"…but to say that the assailiant was selected for a murderous attack by the organisation [Khaksar] does not appear to be true."
Source: Khaksar Movement in India by Shan Muhammad (page 155)

"…in April 1944 a booklet entitled Hamla was found on sale which attempted to show that the attack on Jinnah was the result of a deep laid conspiracy between the Government and Jinnah to discredit the Khaksar movement."
Source: Khaksar Movement in India by Shan Muhammad (page 133)

"To charge me [Allama Mashriqi] as having been the cause of assailing Quaid-e-Azam through a Khaksar in 1943 is equally ridiculous as the Bombay High Court judgement said that Mr. Jinnah had not been able to prove that the assailant was a Khaksar and the man himself announced that he was a favourite Muslim Leaguer. My differences with Mr. Jinnah were only on the point that I wanted undivided Punjab and undivided Bengal with the provinces of U.P. and Bihar to be the least Pakistan of the Muslims. I told him in 1942 that his present Pakistan of the two provinces 1400 miles apart could not last and this would result in the ruin of one crore Muslims and the complete decimation of five crore Muslims of remaining India."
Source: Al-Mashriqi: The Disowned Genius by Syed Shabbir Hussain (page 248)

Assistant Naib Hakim-e-Aalah of Sindh (Khaksar Tehrik), Mir Ali Ahmed Talpur (who later became a Defense Minister in the Federal Cabinet, Government of Pakistan), sent a message (which is shown in the image below) to Quaid-e-Azam. In the message, Mir Ali Ahmed Talpur said that he was shocked to hear about the attack on Quaid-e-Azam's life. He congratulated the Quaid for escaping the attempt on his life and catagorically denied the involvement of any Khaksars in this heinous crime.

Source: Al-Islah Edition No. 7 Vol. 34 dated June 24-July 1, 1997

1943 July 27 The Tribune, Lahore, writes "In an interview with the ‘Associated Press’ Allama Mashriqi, the Khaksar leader, condemns the attack on Mr. Jinnah."

1943 July 27 The Hindustan Times writes about the Khaksars, who condemned the attack on Quaid-e-Azam. The paper quotes the Khaksars as saying, "We went to Mr. Jinnah’s bungalow as soon as we learnt that a cowardly attack was made on his person by a Muslim, who said that he was a Khaksar. We congratulate the Qaid-e-Azam on his escape and strongly condemn the man who has done such a mean action which is absolutely against Khaksar principles. We cannot believe that such a person could be a Khaksar."

1943 July 28 The Bombay Chronicle publishes Mashriqi’s statement regarding the attack on Jinnah. The headline reads, "Allama Mashriqi On Outrage." The paper prints Mashriqi’s interview with the Associated Press:

"Qaide Azam Jinnah is the most revered leader of the Mussalmans at this moment, and all hopes are centred in him. The culprit must be brought to the book, but I would appeal Qaide Azam as well as everyone in India not to give this incident the slightest political tinge for the sake of the most important things that are happening and the most immense reults involved. I would have taken it as a mere accident if the thing had happened with me, and perhaps would not cared to give it to the press or even get the culprit arrested, on account of the vital issues before the country." Mashriqi’s statement is also published in The Hindustan Times on July 28, 1943.

1943 July 28 The Tribune, Lahore, writes about Allama Mashriqi condemning the attack on Quaid-e-Azam.

1943 August 27 The Tribune, Lahore, publishes Allama Mashriqi’s appeal to Mr. Jinnah: "In a lengthy statement, explaining that Khaksars are not rivals of the Muslim League, Allama Mashriqi, the Khaksar leader, states that Mr. Jinnah should immediately take steps to solve the political deadlock. He suggests that Mr. Jinnah should immediately meet Gandhiji and write formally to the Viceroy to allow him to see Mahatma Gandhi for the purpose of Hindu-Muslim settlement." Through this settlement Mashriqi endeavours to seek complete independence for India.

1943 November Roznamah Zamindar (Lahore), a daily newspaper in Urdu, denies attack on Quaid-e-Azam by a Khaksar:

1943 September 02 Muqalaat, second edition, is published.

1943 September 17, The Bombay Chronicle publishes Allama Mashriqi’s appeal, "Allama Mashriqi, leader of the Khaksars, has issued instructions the the Khaksars all over the country to make arrangements to maintain six lakhs Bengali destitutes, men, women or children, until the situation becomes normal."

1943 November 04 Bombay High Court Judge, Justice Blagden, announces his verdict.

1943 November 05 News of the verdict is published in many leading newspapers including The Tribune, Lahore on November 05, 1943, The Hindustan Times on 1943 November 05, and The Bombay Chronicle Nov 05, 1943. None of these newspapers mention Rafiq Sabir Mazangavi as being a Khaksar in their reports.

1943 November 07 The newspaper Zamindar, Lahore, publishes news that Rafiq Sabir Mazangvi is not a Khaksar.

1944 March 18 Mashriqi sends a letter inviting Quaid-e-Azam for a meeting.

1944 March 19 Quaid-e-Azam replies to Allama Mashriqi

1944 March 19 Mashriqi writes back to Quaid-e-Azam, informing him that he would extend his full co-operation to him.

1944 May 09 Mashriqi, in a letter, urges Jinnah to meet Gandhi and settle issues regarding the freedom of India.

1944 May 11 Mashriqi writes to Gandhi.

1944 May 15, Gandhi replies to Mashriqi.

1944 August 14 Mashriqi writes to Quaid-e-Azam

1945 January 01 Gandhi writes a letter to Mashriqi.

1945 January 26, 1945 Mashriqi writes to Gandhi.

1945 January 26, 1945 Mashriqi writes to Quaid-e-Azam.

1945 September 06 Gandhi writes to Mashriqi.

1945 November 01 Gandhi writes a letter to Mashriqi.

1945 November 17 Gandhi writes a letter to Mashriqi.

1945 November 19 Gandhi writes a letter to Mashriqi.

1945 November 20 Gandhi writes a letter to Mashriqi.

1946 February 22 Mashriqi addresses a public gathering at Bankipur, Patna.

1946 April 01 Mashriqi receives a letter from Jinnah.

1946 April 06 Mashriqi writes to Jinnah.

1946 May 22 Mashriqi makes a press statement. He again offers his services to Quaid-e-Azam.

1946 May 23 Mashriqi’s statement is published in the media.

1946 June 01 Mashriqi sends a message to Jinnah and offers his co-operation.

1946 June 05 Mashriqi issues a press statement.

1946 June 16 Mashriqi issues a statement on the acceptance of the Cabinet Mission proposal by Jinnah.

1946 July 14 Mashriqi's makes a statement.

1946 August 30 Jinnah appeals to the Khaksars to join the Muslim League.

1946 September 09 Mashriqi writes to Quaid-e-Azam and offers the services of the Khaksars. He states that the Khaksars would work for the Muslim League and that he would be willing to join hands with Jinnah.

1946 September 13 Al-Islah publishes a letter from Mashriqi to Quaid-e-Azam.

1947 May 10 Mashriqi addresses Khaksars at Banqipur, Putna.

1947 June 27 A meeting is held at Idara-I-Aliya to discuss the division of India.

1947 June 30 Khaksar Camp is held.

1947 August 14, 1947 Pakistan appears on the world map.

1888-1940  | 1940-1947
Copyright © Nasim Yousaf 2001-2002. This information has been extracted from a book about Allama Mashriqi and the Khaksar Tehrik that Mr. Nasim Yousaf is currently working on.